Pharmacology Laboratory

Introduction to the research

The Pharmacology laboratory focuses on how to implement personalized treatment into the clinic. Major approaches include the use of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to determine whether patients will respond to a drug or drug combination. The current research lines focus on the interaction between drugs targeted against DNA and against signal transduction cascades in tumor cells. Elucidation of resistance mechanisms to novel drugs and on ways to bypass them is studied both in appropriate model systems and in patients.  

Composition of the group

The Pharmacology Research group in spring 2013. 
Upper row: Kees Smid, Saskia Broekman (department secretary), Nienke Losekoot, Richard Honeywell,  Frits Peters, Rajiv Raktoe, Amir Avan; sitting: Durga Chandraputla, Elena Galvani, Elisa Giovannetti, Valentina Galla, Mina Maftouh, Ietje Kathmann. 

Translational research 

The laboratory has a long-standing history in translational research. More than half of the Ph.D. students have a medical background and several of them are now involved in translational research at the VU University Medical Center and elsewhere. The translational research has led to the successful introduction into the clinic of several drugs and concepts (co)-developed in the department. This includes the role of thymidylate synthase in the efficacy of fluoro-pyrimidines (e.g. 5-FU and capecitabine) and antifolates (e.g. pemetrexed), optimization of gemcitabine treatment with cisplatin (development of the cisplatin-gemcitabine combination) and more recently the role of EGFR mutations and expression in the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors. 

Some recent research highlights

Recently several major interests merged into a novel concept of drug resistance. Resistance to many anticancer drugs has been associated with increased efflux of a drug out of the cell, the so-called multidrug-resistance (MDR). This efflux is energy dependent and hence requires ATP. One of these pumps, ABCG2, initially called Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), was associated with resistance to drugs such as mitoxantrone, but also several novel antifolates such as pemetrexed. Jan-Hendrik Hooijberg and Clara Lemos demonstrated that the sensitivity of the latter drugs is also dependent on the folate homeostasis of the cell and the body; proper folate supplementation enhances the antitumor activity and protects normal tissues from antifolate toxicity. Unexpectedly, folate depletion also affected the sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. This could be explained by an upregulation of BCRP in these cells. Clara Lemos demonstrated that the localization of BCRP was not on the cellular membrane but intracellularly, a process possibly regulated by phosphorylation of essential serine-threonine and tyrosine kinases. This phenomenon may influence the efficacy of other novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as well. Current research therefore focuses on the role of efflux pumps on the sensitivity of novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their effect in cellular uptake using novel sensitive techniques such as LC coupled to mass spectrometry.

The novel proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was studied intensively for its interaction with standard chemotherapy (gemcitabine-cisplatin) in non-small cell lung cancer. Elisa Giovannetti and Richard Honeywell demonstrated that bortezomib prevented gemcitabine activation in normal white blood cells but selectively enhanced its activation in tumor cells, by preventing the degradation of the key activation enzyme of gemcitabine, deoxycytidine kinase. In a collaborative Italian study, Elisa Giovannetti demonstrated that the antitumor activity and toxicity of gemcitabine are related to a specific polymorphism in the degradation enzyme of gemcitabine, deoxycytidine deaminase. Prospective studies on the role of dCDA to select patients are warranted. Careful analysis of a similar group of patients by Mariëlle Gallegos Ruiz and Elisa Giovannetti also revealed that signal transduction pathways downstream of EGFR may play a similar or even more important role in the efficacy of these drugs.

Recent publications


Leon LG, Gemelli M, Sciarrillo R, Avan A, Zucali PA, Funel N, Santoro A, Giovannetti E. Synergistic activity of the c-Met and tubulin inhibitor tivantinib (ARQ197) with pemetrexed in mesothelioma cells. Curr Drug Targets 2015; [2014 Dec 5. Epub ahead of print].

Porcelli L, Giovannetti E, Assaraf YG, Jansen G, Scheffer GL, Kathman I, Azzariti A, Paradiso A, Peters GJ. The EGFR pathway regulates BCRP expression in NSCLC cells: role of Erlotinib. Curr Drug Targets 2015; [2014 Dec 5. Epub ahead of print].

Avan A, Adema AD, Hoebe EK, Huijts CM, Avan A, Veal GJ, Ruijtenbeek R, Wosikowski K, Peters GJ. Modulation of signaling enhances the efficacy of the combination of satraplatin and erlotinib. Curr Drug Targets 2015; [2014 Nov 6. Epub ahead of print].

Giovannetti E, Leon LG. New strategies and applications for drugs targeting EGFR And C-Met. Curr Drug Targets 2015; [2014 Nov 6. Epub ahead of print]. 


Garajová I, Le Large TY, Frampton AE, Rolfo C, Voortman J, Giovannetti E. Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of microRNAs in the chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:678401. doi: 10.1155/2014/678401.

Avan A, Avan A, Le Large TY, Mambrini A, Funel N, Maftouh M, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Cantore M, Boggi U, Peters GJ, Pacetti P, Giovannetti E. AKT1 and SELP polymorphisms predict the risk of developing cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients. PLoS One 2014; 9: e108057. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108057.

Avan A, Avan A, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ. Calcium/magnesium infusion for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy: protective or not? J Clin Oncol 2014; 32: 3341. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.1846.

Robert J, Le Morvan V, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ, PAMM Group of EORTC. On the use of pharmacogenetics in cancer treatment and clinical trials. Eur J Cancer 2014; 50: 2532-2543.

Rolfo C, Giovannetti E, Hong DS, Bivona T, Raez LE, Bronte G, Buffoni L, Reguart N, Santos ES, Germonpre P, Taron M, Passiglia F, Van Meerbeeck JP, Russo A, Peeters M, Gil-Bazo I, Pauwels P, Rosell R. Novel therapeutic strategies for patients with NSCLC that do not respond to treatment with EGFR inhibitors.Cancer Treatm Rev 2014; 40: 990-1004.

Rolfo C, Fanale D, Hong DS, Tsimberidou AM, Piha-Paul SA, Pauwels P, Van Meerbeeck JP, Caruso S, Bazan V, Cicero G, Russo A, Giovannetti E. Impact of microRNAs in resistance to chemotherapy and novel targeted agents in non-small cell lung cancer. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2014; 15: 475-485.

Maftouh M, Belo AI, Avan A, Fune N, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E, Die IV. Galectin-4 expression is associated with reduced lymph node metastasis and modulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncotarget 2014; 5: 5335-5349.

Azijli K, van Roosmalen IA, Smit J, Pillai S, Fukushima M, de Jong S, Peters GJ, Bijnsdorp IV, Kruyt FA. The novel thymidylate synthase inhibitor trifluorothymidine (TFT) and TRAIL synergistically eradicate non-small cell lung cancer cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2014; 73: 1273-1283.

Hooijberg JH1, Jansen G, Kathmann I, Pieters R, Laan AC, van Zantwijk I, Kaspers GJ, Peters GJ. Folates provoke cellular efflux and drug resistance of substrates of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2014; 73: 911-917.

Maftouh M, Avan A, Funel N, Paolicchi E, Vasile E, Pacetti P, Vaccaro V, Faviana P, Campani D, Caponi S, Mambrini A, Boggi U, Cantore M, Milella M, Peters GJ, Reni M, Giovannetti E. A polymorphism in the promoter is associated with EZH2 expression but not with outcome in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics 2014; 15: 609-618.

Babu YR, Bhagavanraju M, Reddy GD, Peters GJ, Prasad VV. Design and synthesis of quinazolinone tagged acridones as cytotoxic agents and their effects on EGFR tyrosine kinase. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2014; 347: 624-634.

Frampton AE, Giovannetti E, Jamieson NB, Krell J, Gall TM, Stebbing J, Jiao LR, Castellano L. A microRNA meta-signature for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2014; 14: 267-271.

Giovannetti E, Giaccone G. CYB5A and autophagy-mediated cell death in pancreatic cancer. Autophagy 2014; 10: 697-698.

Avan A, Maftouh M, Avan A, Tibaldi C, Zucali PA, Giovannetti E. "SNPs in PI3K/PTEN/mTOR and brain metastases in NSCLC" --Letter. Clin Cancer Res 2014; 20: 3623-3624.

Azijli K, Stelloo E, Peters GJ, Van den Eertwegh AJ. New developments in the treatment of metastatic melanoma: immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies. Anticancer Res 2014; 34: 1493-1505.

Ceresa C, Avan A, Giovannetti E, Geldof AA, Avan A, Cavaletti G, Peters GJ. Characterization of and protection from neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin, bortezomib and epothilone-B. Anticancer Res 2014; 34: 517-523.

Peters GJ, Avan A, Ruiz MG, Orsini V, Avan A, Giovannetti E, Smit EF. Predictive role of repair enzymes in the efficacy of Cisplatin combinations in pancreatic and lung cancer. Anticancer Res 2014; 34: 435-442.

Hitzerd SM, Verbrugge SE, Ossenkoppele G, Jansen G, Peters GJ. Positioning of aminopeptidase inhibitors in next generation cancer therapy. Amino Acids 2014; 46: 793- 808.

Giovannetti E, Wang Q, Avan A, Funel N, Lagerweij T, Lee J.H., Caretti V, van der Velde A, Boggi U, Wang Y, Vasile E, Peters GJ, Wurdinger T, Giaccone G. Role of CYB5A in pancreatic cancer prognosis and autophagy modulation. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014; 106:  djt346. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt346.

Galvani E, Toffalorio F, Peters GJ, De Pas T, Giovannetti E. Pharmacogenetics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): time to "work it out"? Curr Pharm Des 2014; 20: 3863-3874.

Frampton AE, Castellano L, Colombo T, Giovannetti E, Krell J, Jacob J, Pellegrino L, Roca-Alonso L, Funel N, Gall TM, De Giorgio A, Pinho FG, Fulci V, Britton DJ, Ahmad R, Habib NA, Coombes RC, Harding V, Knösel T, Stebbing J, Jiao LR. MicroRNAs cooperatively inhibit a network of tumor suppressor genes to promote pancreatic tumor growth and progression. Gastroenterology 2014; 146: 268-277.

Maftouh M, Avan A,Sciarrillo R, Granchi C, Leon LG, Rani R, Funel N, Smid K, Honeywell R, Boggi U, Minutolo F, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Synergistic interaction of novel lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors with gemcitabine against pancreatic cancer cells in hypoxia. Br J Cancer 2014; 110:172-182.


Paolicchi E, Pacetti P, Giovannetti E, Mambrini A, Orlandi M, Crea F, Romani AA, Tartarini R, Danesi R, Peters GJ, Cantore M. A single nucleotide polymorphism in EZH2 predicts overall survival rate in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Oncol Lett 2013; 6:1487-1491.

Peters GJ, Smid K, Vecchi L, Kathmann I, Sarkisjan D, Honeywell RJ, Losekoot N, Ohne O, Orbach A, Blaugrund E, Jeong LS, Lee YB, Ahn CH, Kim D. Metabolism, mechanism of action and sensitivity profile of fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117; TV-1360). Invest New Drugs 2013; 31: 1444-1457.

Bronte G, Rolfo C, Giovannetti E, Cicero G, Pauwels P, Passiglia F, Castiglia M, Rizzo S, Vullo FL, Fiorentino E, Van Meerbeeck J, Russo A. Are erlotinib and gefitinib interchangeable, opposite or complementary for non-small cell lung cancer treatment? Biological, pharmacological and clinical aspects. Crti Rev Hematol Oncol 2013; S1040-8428(13)00180-7.

Avan A, Caretti V, Funel N, Galvani E, Maftouh M, Honeywell RJ, Lagerweij T, Van Tellingen O, Campani D, Fuchs D, Verheul HM, Schuurhuis GJ, Boggi U, Peters GJ, Wurdinger T, Giovannetti E. Crizotinib inhibits metabolic inactivation of gemcitabine in c-Met-driven pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Res 2013; 73: 6745-6756.

Avan A, Maftouh M, Funel N, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Boggi U, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. MET as a potential target for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal cancers: characterization of novel C-Met inhibitors from bench to bedside. Curr Med Chem 2013; Aug 23. [Epub ahead of print].

García-Santisteban U, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E, Rodríguez JA. SP1 deubiquitinase: cellular functions, regulatory mechanisms and emerging potential as target in cancer therapy. Mol Cancer 2013, 12: 91. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-12-91.

Snoek BC, de Wilt LH, Jansen G, Peters GJ. Role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in lung cancer. World J Clin Oncol 2013; 4: 58-69.

Frampton AE, Krell J, Kazemier G, Giovannetti E. Serum miR-1290 as a marker of pancreatic cancer - Letter. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19: 5250-5251.

Giovannetti E, Peters GJ, Zucali PA. "One marker does not fit all": additional translational and validation studies are needed to identify faithful predictors of pemetrexed activity in mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol 2013; 8 :e79-80.

Frings V, van der Veldt AA, Boellaard R, Herder GJ, Giovannetti E, Honeywell R, Peters GJ, Thunnissen E, Hoekstra OS, Smit EF. Pemetrexed induced thymidylate synthase inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study with 3'-Deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography. PLos One 2013; 8: e63705.

Ciccolini J, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Gender, Cytidine Deaminase, and 5-Aza/Decitabine--Letter. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19 :3105.

Azijli K, Weyhenmeyer B, Peters GJ, de Jong S, Kruyt FA. Non-canonical kinase signaling by the death ligand TRAIL in cancer cells: discord in the death receptor family. Cell Death Differ 2013; 20: 858-868.

Maftouh M, Avan A, Galvani E, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of microRNAs in resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted agents and novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Crit Rev Oncog 2013; 18: 317-326.

Martens-de Kemp SR, Dalm SU, Wijnolts FM, Brink A, Honeywell RJ, Peters GJ, Braakhuis BJ, Brakenhoff RH. DNA-Bound Platinum is the major determinant of cisplatin sensitivity in head and neck squamous carcinoma cells. Plos One 2013; 8 :e61555.

Azijli K, Yuvaraj S, van Roosmalen I, Flach K, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ, de Jong S, Kruyt FA. MAPK p38 and JNK have opposing activities on TRAIL-induced apoptosis activation in NSCLC H460 cells that involves RIP1 and caspase-8 and is mediated by Mcl-1. Apoptosis 2013; 18: 851-860.

Avan A, Pacetti P, Reni M, Milella M, Vasile E, Mambrini A, Vaccaro V, Caponi S, Cereda S, Peters GJ, Cantore M, Giovannetti E. Prognostic factors in gemcitabine-cisplatin polychemotherapy regimens in pancreatic cancer: XPD-Lys751Gln polymorphism strikes back. Int J Cancer 2013; 133: 1016-1022.

Rajendra Prasad VV, Deepak Reddy G, Appaji D, Peters GJ, Mayur YC. Chemosensitizing acridones: In vitro calmodulin dependent cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibition, docking, pharmacophore modeling and 3D QSAR studies. J Mol Graph Model 2013; 40:116-124.

Galvani E, Giovannetti E, Saccani F, Cavazzoni A, Leon LG, Dekker H, Alfieri R, Carmi C, Mor M, Ardizzoni A, Petronini PG, Peters GJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of 3-aminopropanamide irreversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer. Neoplasia 2013; 15: 61-72.

Seinen ML, van Asseldonk DP, de Boer NK, Losekoot N, Smid K, Mulder CJ, Bouma G, Peters GJ, van Bodegraven AA. The effect of allopurinol and low-dose thiopurine combination therapy on the activity of three pivotal thiopurine metabolizing enzymes: Results from a prospective pharmacological study. J Crohns Colitis 2013 Jan 10. pii: S1873-9946(12)00482-5.

Verbrugge SE, Al M, Assaraf YG, Niewerth D, van Meerloo J, Cloos J, van der Veer M, Scheffer GL, Peters GJ, Chan ET, Anderl JL, Kirk CJ, Zweegman S, Dijkmans BA, Lems WF, Scheper RJ, de Gruijl TD, Jansen G. Overcoming bortezomib resistance in human B cells by anti-CD20/rituximab-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity and epoxyketone-based irreversible proteasome inhibitors. Exp Hematol Oncol 2013 Jan 10;2(1):2.

Westgeest HM, van Erp NP, Honeywell RJ, Hoekstra R, Peters GJ, Verheul HMW. Successful treatment of renal cell carcinoma with sorafenib after effective but hepatotoxic sunitinib exposure. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31: e83-e86.

Caponi S, Funel N, Frampton AE, Mosca F, Santarpia L, Van der Velde AG, Jiao LR, De Lio N, Falcone A, Kazemier G, Mejer GA, Verheul HM, Vasile E, Peters GJ, Boggi U, Giovannetti E. The good, the bad and the ugly: a tale of miR-101, miR-21 and miR-155 in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Ann Oncol 2013; 24: 734-741. 

Pistilli B, Bellettini G, Giovannetti E, Codacci-Pisanelli G, Azim HA Jr, Benedetti G, Sarno MA, Peccatori FA. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: How should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding? Cancer Treatm Rev 2013; 39: 207-211.

Galvani E, Alfieri R, Giovannetti E, Cavazzoni A, Monica SL, Galetti M, Fumarola C, Bonelli M, Mor M, Tiseo M, Peters GJ, Petronini PG, Ardizzoni A. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase Inhibitors: current status and future perspective in the development of novel irreversible inhibitors for the treatment of mutant non-small cell lung cancer. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19: 818-832.

Giovannetti E, Labots M, Dekker H, Galvani E, Lind JS, Sciarrillo R, Honeywell R, Smit EF, Verheul HM, Peters GJ. Molecular mechanisms and modulation of key pathways underlying the synergistic interaction of sorafenib with erlotinib in non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19: 927-939.

Avan A, Quint K, Nicolini F, Funel N, Frampton AE, Maftouh M, Pelliccioni S, Schuurhuis GJ, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Enhancement of the antiproliferative activity of gemcitabine by modulation of C-Met pathway in pancreatic cancer. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19: 940-950.

Tiseo M, Giovannetti E, Tibaldi C, Camerini A, Di Costanzo F,  Barbieri F,  Burgers JA,, Vincent A,  Peters GJ, Smit EF,  Ardizzonia A. Pharmacogenetic study of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with second-line pemetrexed or pemetrexed–carboplatin. Lung Cancer 2013; 78: 92-99.

de Wilt LH, Kroon J, Jansen G, de Jong S, Peters GJ, Kruyt FA. Bortezomib and TRAIL: A perfect match for apoptotic elimination of tumour cells? Crit Rev Hematol Oncol 2013 85: 363-372.

Phillips RM, Hendriks HR, Peters GJ; on behalf of the EORTC-Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanism Group. EO9 (Apaziquone): From the clinic to the laboratory and back again. Br J Pharmacol 2013; 168: 11-18.


Peters GJ, Bijnsdorp IV. TAS-102: more than an antimetabolite. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: E518-519.

Frampton AE, Krell J, Giovannetti E, Krell D, Stebbing J, Castellano L, Jiao LR. Defining a prognostic molecular profile for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas highlights known key signaling pathways. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2012; 12: 1275-1278.

Giovannetti E, van der Velde A, Funel N, Vasile E, Perrone V, Leon LG, De Lio N, Avan A, Caponi S, Pollina LE, Gallá V, Sudo H, Falcone A, Campani D, Boggi U, Peters GJ. High-throughput microRNA (miRNAs) arrays unravel the prognostic role of MiR-211 in pancreatic cancer. Plos One 2012; 7: e49145; doi:10.1371/ journal. pone. 0049145.

Timmers L, Swart EL, Boons CC, Mangnus D, van de Ven PM, Peters GJ, Boven E, Hugtenburg JG. The use of capecitabine in daily practice: a study on adherence and patients' experiences. Patient Prefer Adherence 2012; 6: 741-748. 

Erdem L, Giovannetti E, Leon LG, Honeywell R, Peters GJ. Polymorphisms to predict outcome to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib, erlotinib, sorafenib and sunitinib. Curr Top Med Chem 2012; 12: 1649-1659.

Frampton AE, Krell J, Giovannetti E, Jiao LR, Stebbing J. Role of miRNAs in the response to anticancer therapy. Pharmacogenomics 2012;13:1663-1666.

Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, ...Peters GJ et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy 2012; 8:445-544.

Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Research Highlights: Highlights from the latest articles in pharmacogenomics of irinotecan/cisplatin toxicity. Pharmacogenomics 2012; 13:1445-1447.

Galvani E, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. EGF receptor-targeted therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: role of germline polymorphisms in outcome and toxicity. Future Oncol 2012; 8: 1015-1029.

Giovannetti E, Toffalorio F, De Pas T, Peters GJ. Pharmacogenetics of conventional chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: a changing landscape? Pharmacogenomics 2012; 13: 1073-1086.

Azijli K, Yuvaraj S, Peppelenbosch MP, Würdinger T, Dekker H, Joore J, van Dijk E, Quax WJ, Peters GJ, de Jong S, Kruyt FA. Kinome profiling of non-canonical TRAIL signaling reveals RIP1-Src-STAT3 dependent invasion in resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells. J Cell Sci 2012; 125: 4651-4661.

Avan A, Crea F, Paolicchi E, Funel N, Galvani E, Marquez VE, Honeywell RJ, Danesi R, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Molecular mechanisms involved in the synergistic interaction of the EZH2 inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNeP) with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2012; 11: 1735-1746.

van Hagen P, Hulshof MC, van Lanschot JJ, Steyerberg EW, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BP, Richel DJ, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Hospers GA, Bonenkamp JJ, Cuesta MA, Blaisse RJ, Busch OR, ten Kate FJ, Creemers GJ, Punt CJ, Plukker JT, Verheul HM, Spillenaar Bilgen EJ, van Dekken H, van der Sangen MJ, Rozema T, Biermann K, Beukema JC, Piet AH, van Rij CM, Reinders JG, Tilanus HW, van der Gaast A; CROSS Group. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for esophageal or junctional cancer. New Engl J Med 2012; 366: 2074-2084.

Kaye S,  Aamdal S, Jones R, Freyer G, Pujade-Lauraine E, de Vries EG, Barriuso J, Sandhu S, Tan DS-W, Hartog V, Kuenen B, Ruijter R, Kristensen GB, Nyakas M, Barrett S, Burke W, Pietersma D, Stuart M, Emeribe U, Boven E. Phase I study of saracatinib (AZD0530) in combination with paclitaxel and/or carboplatin in patients with solid tumours. Br J Cancer 2012; 106: 1728-1734.

Muggia F, Diaz I, Peters GJ. Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs in cancer treatment: not only sapacitabine, but also gemcitabine. Exp Opin Investig Drugs 2012; 21: 403-408.

Elnaggar M, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ. Molecular targets of gemcitabine action: rationale for development of novel drugs and drug combinations. Curr Pharm Des 2012; 18: 2811-2829.

Giovannetti E, Codacci-Pisanelli G, Peters GJ. TFAP2E-DKK4 and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer. New Engl J Med 2012; 366: 966; author reply 966.

Peccatori FA, Giovannetti E, Pistilli B, Bellettini G, Codacci-Pisanelli G, Losekoot N, Curigliano G, Azim HA Jr, Goldhirsch A, Peters GJ. "The only thing I know is that I know nothing": 5-fluorouracil in human milk. Ann Oncol 2012; 23: 543-544.

Verbrugge SE, Assaraf YG, Dijkmans BA, Scheffer GL, Al M, den Uyl D, Oerlemans R, Chan ET, Kirk CJ, Peters GJ, van der Heijden JW, de Gruijl TD, Scheper RJ, Jansen G. Inactivating PSMB5 mutations and P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ ABCB1) mediate resistance to proteasome inhibitors: ex vivo efficacy of (immuno) proteasome inhibitors in mononuclear blood cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2012;  341: 174-182.

de Wilt LHAM, Jansen G, Assaraf YG,  van Meerlood J, Cloos J, Schimmer AD,  Chan ET, Kirk CJ, Peters GJ, Kruyt FAE. Proteasome-based mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired bortezomib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 2012; 83: 207-217.

Adema AD, Smid K, Losekoot N, Honeywell RJ, Verheul HM, Myhren F, Sandvold ML, Peters GJ. Metabolism and accumulation of the lipophilic deoxynucleoside analogs elacytarabine and CP-4126. Invest New Drugs 2012; 30:1908-1916.

Tibaldi C, Giovannetti E, Tiseo M, Leon LG, D'Incecco A, Loosekoot N,  Bartolotti M, Honeywell R, Cappuzzo F,  Ardizzoni A, Peters GJ. Correlation of cytidine deaminase polymorphisms and activity with clinical outcome in gemcitabine-/platinum-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Ann Oncol  2012; 23: 670-677.

Lee JH, Giovannetti E, Hwang JH, Petrini I, Wang Q, Voortman J, Wang Y, Steinberg SM, Funel N, Meltzer PS, Wang Y, Giaccone G. Loss of 18q22.3 involving the carboxypeptidase of glutamate-like gene is associated with poor prognosis in resected pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2012; 18: 524-533.

Giovannetti E, Erozenci A, Smit J, Danesi R, Peters GJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in anticancer drug resistance and implications for clinical practice. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2012; 81: 103-122.


Hodzic J, Giovannetti E, Calvo BD, Adema AD, Peters GJ. Regulation of deoxycytidine kinase expression and sensitivity to gemcitabine by micro-RNA 330 and promoter methylation in cancer cells. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011; 30:1214-2122.

Honeywell RJ, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ. Determination of the phosphorylated metabolites of gemcitabine and of difluorodeoxyuridine by LCMSMS. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011; 30:1203-1213.

Bijnsdorp IV, Peters GJ. Deoxyribose protects against rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011; 30:1197-1202.

Peters GJ, Adema AD, Bijnsdorp IV, Sandvold ML. Lipophilic prodrugs and formulations of conventional (deoxy)nucleoside and fluoropyrimidine analogs in cancer. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011; 30:1168-1180.

Giovannetti E, Pacetti P, Reni M, Leon LG, Mambrini A, Vasile E, Ghidini M, Funel N, Lucchesi M, Cereda S, Peters GJ, Cantore M. Association between DNA-repair polymorphisms and survival in pancreatic cancer patients treated with combination chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics 2011; 12:1641-1652.

Gotink KJ, Broxterman HJ, Labots M,  de Haas RR, Dekker H, Honeywell RJ,  Rudek MA, Beerepoot LV, Musters RJ, Jansen G, Griffioen AW,  Assaraf YG, Pili R, Peters GJ, Verheul HMW. Lysosomal sequestration of sunitinib: a novel mechanism of drug resistance. Clin Cancer Res 2011; 17: 7337-7346.

Giovannetti E, Zucali PA, Assaraf YG, Leon LG, Smid K, Alecci C, Giancola F, Destro A, Gianoncelli L, Lorenzi E, Roncalli M, Santoro A, Peters GJ. Pre-clinical emergence of vandetanib as a potent antitumour agent in meso-thelioma: molecular mechanisms underlying its synergistic interaction with pemetrexed and carboplatin. Br J Cancer 2011; 105: 1542-1553.

Granchi C, Roy S, De Simone A, Salvetti I, Tuccinardi T, Martinelli A, Macchia M, Lanza M, Betti L, Giannaccini G, Lucacchini A, Giovannetti E, Sciarrillo R, Peters GJ, Minutolo F. N-Hydroxyindole-based inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase against cancer cell proliferation. Eur J Med Chem 2011; 46: 5398-5407.

Galvani E, Peters GJ, Giovannetti E. Thymidylate synthase inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer. Exp Opin Investig Drugs 2011; 20:1343-1356.

Funel N, Giovannetti E, Pollina LE, Del Chiaro M, Mosca F, Boggi U, Campani D. Critical role of laser microdissection for genetic, epigenetic and proteomic analyses in pancreatic cancer. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2011; 11:695-701.

Rekers NH, Sminia P, Peters GJ. Towards tailored therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. J Chemother 2011; 23:187-199.

Leon LG, Giovannetti E, Smid K, van Houte BP, Hanauske AR, Giaccone G, Peters GJ. DNA copy number profiles correlate with outcome in colorectal cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidine/antifolate-based regimens. Curr Drug Metabol 2011; 12: 956-965.

Porcelli L, Assaraf YG, Azzariti A, Paradiso A, Jansen G, Peters GJ. The impact of folate status on the efficacy of colorectal cancer treatment. Curr Drug Metabol 2011; 12: 975-984.

Broekman F, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted? World J Clin Oncol 2011; 2:80-93.

Rajendra Prasad VV, Peters GJ, Lemos C, Kathmann I, Mayur YC. Cytotoxicity studies of some novel fluoro acridone derivatives against sensitive and resistant cancer cell lines and their mechanistic studies. Eur J Pharm Sci  201; 43:217-224.

Bijnsdorp IV, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ. Analysis of drug interactions. Methods Mol Biol 2011; 731:421-434.

León LG, Giovannetti E, Alecci C, Giancola F, Funel N, Zucali P, Peters GJ, Padrón JM. Antiproliferative effects of novel aliphatic acetogenin analogs against aggressive solid tumor cell lines. In vivo 2011; 25:203-207.

Bijnsdorp IV, Capriotti F, Kruyt FAE, Losekoot N, Fukushima M, Griffioen AW, Thijssen VL, Peters GJ. Thymidine phosphorylase in cancer cells stimulates human endothelial cell migration and invasion by the secretion of angiogenic factors. Br J Cancer 2011; 104: 1185-1192.

Jharap B, de Boer NK, Vos RM, Smid K, Zwiers A, Peters GJ, Mulder CJ, Wilhelm AJ, van Bodegraven AA. Biotransformation of 6-thioguanine in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a comparison of oral and intravenous administration of 6-thioguanine. Br J Pharmacol 2011; 163:722-731.

Granchi C, Roy S, Giacomelli C, Macchia M, Tuccinardi T, Martinelli A, Lanza M, Betti L, Giannaccini G, Lucacchini A, Funel N, Leo´n LG, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ, Palchaudhuri R, Calvaresi EC, Hergenrother PJ, Minutolo F. Discovery of N-hydroxyindole-based inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase isoform A (LDH-A) as starvation agents against cancer cells. J Med Chem 2011; 54: 1599-1612.

Lemos C, Giovannetti E, Zucali PA, Assaraf YG, Scheffer GL, van der Straaten T, D'Incecco A, Falcone A, Guchelaar HJ, Danesi R, Santoro A, Giaccone G, Tibaldi C, Peters GJ. Impact of ABCG2 polymorphisms on the clinical outcome and toxicity of gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Pharmaco-genomics 2011; 12:159-170.

Zucali PA, Giovannetti E,  Destro A, Mencoboni M, Ceresoli GL, Gianoncelli L, Lorenzi E, De Vincenzo F, Simonelli M, Perrino M, Bruzzone A, Thunnissen E, Tunesi G, Giordano L, Roncalli M, Peters GJ, Santoro A. Thymidylate synthase and excision repair-cross-complementing group-1 as predictors of responsiveness in mesothelioma patinets treated with premetrexed-carboplatin. Clin Cancer Res 2011; 17:2581-2590.

Tibaldi C, Giovannetti E, Vasile E, Boldrini L, Gallegos-Ruiz MI, Bernardini I, Incensati R, Danesi R, Cappuzzo F, Peters GJ, Fontanini G. Inherited germline T790M mutation and somatic epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patients. J Thorac Oncol 2011; 6:395-396.

Jacobs H,  Bast A,  Peters GJ, van der Vijgh WJF, Haenen GRM. The semi-synthetic flavonoid monoHER sensitises human soft tissue sarcoma cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis via inhibition of nuclear factor-kB. Br J Cancer 2011; 104:437-440.

Giovannetti E, Erdem L, Olcay E, Leon LG, Peters GJ. Influence of polymorphisms on EGFR targeted therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer. Front Biosci 2011; 16:116-130.  


Pastina I, Giovannetti E, Chioni A, Sissung TM, Crea F, Orlandini C, Price DK, Cianci C, Figg WD, Ricci S, Danesi R. Cytochrome 450 1B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms associated with response to docetaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. BMC Cancer 2010 Sep 27;10:511. 

Toffalorio F, De Pas T, Giovannetti E. Differences of gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer: are histology, tumor site, and methodology relevant? J Thorac Oncol 2010 Aug;5(8):1310-1; author reply 1311.

Schneiders FL, van den Berg HP, Peters GJ, Verheul HM, van der Vliet HJ. Severe toxicity of capecitabine following uncomplicated treatment with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. Med Oncol 2010; Jun 22 [Epub ahead of print].

Bijnsdorp IV,  Azijlia K, Jansen EE, Wamelink MM, Jakobs C, Struys EA, Fukushima M, Kruyt FAE, Peters GJ. Accumulation of thymidine-derived sugars in thymidine phosphorylase overexpressing cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2010;  80:786-792.

Hwang JH, Voortman J, Giovannetti E, Steinberg SM, Leon LG, Kim YT, Funel N, Park JK, Kim MA, Kang GH, Kim SW, Del Chiaro M, Peters GJ, Giaccone G. Identification of microRNA-21 as a biomarker for chemoresistance and clinical outcome following adjuvant therapy in resectable pancreatic cancer. Plos One 2010; May 14;5(5):e10630.

Giovannetti E, Funel N, Peters GJ, Del Chiaro M, Erozenci LA, Vasile E, Leon LG, Pollina LE, Groen A, Falcone A, Danesi R, Campani D, Verheul HM,  Boggi U. MicroRNA-21 in pancreatic cancer: correlation with clinical outcome and pharmacologic aspects underlying its role in the modulation of gemcitabine activity. Cancer Res 2010; 70:4528-4538.

Sigmond J, Bergman AM, Leon LG, Loves WJ, Hoebe EK, Peters GJ. Staurosporine increases toxicity of gemcitabine in non-small cell lung cancer cells: role of protein kinase C, deoxycytidine kinase and ribonucleotide reductase. Anticancer Drugs 2010; 21:591-599.

Zucali PA, Giovannetti E, Assaraf YG, Ceresoli GL, Peters GJ, Santoro A. New tricks for old biomarkers: thymidylate synthase expression as a predictor of pemetrexed activity in malignant mesothelioma. Ann Oncol 2010; 21:1560-1561.

Lind JSW, Dingemans AC, Groen HJM, Thunnissen E, Bekers O, Heideman DAH, Honeywell R, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ, Postmus PE, van Suylen RJ, Smit EF. A Multicenter, Phase II study of erlotinib and sorafenib in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16:3078-3087.

Honeywell R, Yarzadah K, Giovannetti E, Losekoot N, Smit EF, Walraven M, Lind JS, Tibaldi C, Verheul HM, Peters GJ. Simple and selective method for the determination of various tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in the clinical setting by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010; 878:1059-1068.

Temmink OH, Bijnsdorp IV, Prins HJ, Losekoot N, Adema AD, Smid K, Honeywell RJ, Ylstra B, Eijk PP, Fukushima M, Peters GJ. Trifuorothyimidine resistance is associated with decreased thymidine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporter expression or increased secretory phospholipase A2. Mol Cancer Ther 2010; 9:1047-1057.

Giovannetti E, Tibaldi C, Falcone A,  Danesi R, Peters GJ. Impact of cytidine deaminase polymorphisms on toxicity after gemcitabine: the question is still ongoing. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28:e221-222; author reply e223-225.

Bergman AM, Adema AD, Balzarini J, Bruheim S, Fichtner I, Noordhuis P, Fodstad O, Myhren F, Sandvold ML, Hendriks HR, Peters GJ. Antiproliferative activity, mechanism of action and oral antitumor activity of CP-4126, a fatty acid derivative of gemcitabine, in in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Invest New Drugs 2010; in press.

Bijnsdorp IV, Schwendener RA, Schott H, Fichtner I, Smid K, Laan AC, Schott S, Losekoot N, Honeywell RJ, Peters GJ. Cellular pharmacology of multi- and duplex drugsconsisting of ethynylcytidine and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine. Invest New Drugs 2010; 2009 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print].

Giovannetti E, Zucali PA, Peters GJ, Cortesi F, D'Incecco A, Smit EF, Falcone A, Burgers JA, Santoro A, Danesi R, Giaccone G, Tibaldi C. Association of polymorphisms in AKT1 and EGFR with clinical outcome and toxicity in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib. Mol Cancer Ther 2010; 9: 581-593.

Adema AD, Laan AC, Myhren F, Fichtner I, Verheul HM, Sandvold ML, Peters GJ. Cell cycle effects of fatty acid derivatives of cytarabine, CP-4055, and of gemcitabine, CP-4126, as basis for the interaction with oxaliplatin and docetaxel. Int J Oncol 2010; 36: 285-294. 

Bijnsdorp IV, Kruyt FA, Fukushima M, Smid K, Gokoel S, Peters GJ. Molecular mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction between trifluorothymidine and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 440-447.

Bijnsdorp IV, Peters GJ, Temmink OH, Fukushima M, Kruyt FA. Differential activation of cell death and autophagy results in an increased cytotoxic potential for trifluorothymidine compared to 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer cells. Int J Cancer 2010; 126: 2457-2468.

Giovannetti E, Honeywell R, Hanauske AR, Tekle C, Kuenen B, Sigmond J, Giaccone G, Peters GJ. Pharmacological aspects of the enzastaurin-pemetrexed combination in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current Drug Targets 2010; 11: 12-28.


Sigmond J, Honeywell RJ, Postma TJ, Dirven CMF, De Lange SM, Van der Born K, Laan AC, Baayen JC, Van Groeningen CJ, Bergman AM, Giaccone G, Peters GJ. Gemcitabine uptake in glioblastoma multiforme: potential as a radiosensitizer. Ann Oncol 2009; 20: 182-187.

Gallegos Ruiz MI, Floor K, Steinberg SM, Grünberg K, Thunnissen FBJM, Belien JAM, Meijer GA, Peters GJ, Smit EF, Rodriguez JA, Giaccone G (2009). Combined assesment of EGFR pathway-related molecular markers and prognosis of NSCLC patients. Br J Cancer 2009; 100: 145-152.

Porcelli L, Lemos C, Peters GJ, Paradiso A, Azzariti A. Intracellular trafficking of MDR transporters and relevance of SNPs. Current Topics Med Chem 2009; 9: 197-208.

Lemos C, Kathmann I, Giovannetti E, Beliën J, Scheffer GL, Calhau C, Jansen G, Peters GJ. Cellular folate status modulates the expression of BCRP and MRP multidrug transporters in cancer cell lines from different origins. Mol Cancer Ther 2009; 8: 655-664.

De Jonge R, Tissing W, Hooijberg JH, Jansen G, Kaspers GJL, Lindemans J, Peters GJ, Pieters R. Polymorphisms in folate-related genes and risk of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2009; 113: 2284-2289.

Lemos C, Kathmann I, Giovannetti E, Calhau, C, Jansen G, Peters GJ. Impact of cellular folate status and epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing cells on BCRP/ABCG2 mediated resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib. Br J Cancer 2009; 100: 1120-1127.

Muggia FM, Peters GJ, Landolph Jr, JR (2009). XIII International Charles Heidelberger Symposium and 50 Years of Fluoropyrimidines in Cancer Therapy Held on September 6 to 8, 2007 at New York University Cancer Institute,Smilow Conference Center. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8: 992-999.

Ceresa C, Giovannetti E, Voortman J, Laan AC, Honeywell R, Giaccone G, Peters GJ. Bortezomib induces schedule-dependent modulation of gemcitabine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in non-small cell lung cancer and blood mononuclear cells. Mol. Cancer Ther. 2009; 8: 1026-1036.

Fotoohi AK, Assaraf YG, Moshfegh A, Hashemi J, Jansen G, Peters GJ, Larsson C, Albertioni F. Gene expression profiling of leukemia T-cells resistant to methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate reveals alterations that preserve intracellular levels of folate and nucleotide biosynthesis. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2009; 77: 1410-1417.

Mayur YC, Peters GJ, Prasad VVSR, Lemos C, Sathish NK. Design of new drug molecules to be used in reversing multdrug resistance in cancer cells. Current Cancer Drug Targets 2009; 9: 298-306.

Andersson R, Aho U, Nilsson BI, Peters GJ, Pastor-Anglada M, Rasch W, Sandvold ML. Gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer: molecular mechanisms and potential solutions. Scand J Gastroenterol 2009; 44: 782-786.

Mauritz R, Giovannetti E, Beumer IJ, Smid K, Van Groeningen CJ, Pinedo HM, Peters GJ. Polymorphisms in the enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase gene are associated with thymidylate synthase levels in normal tissues but not in malignant tissues of patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer 2009; 8: 146-154.

Adema AD, Van der Born K, Honeywell RJ, Peters GJ. Cell cycle effects and increased adduct formation by temozolomide enhance the effect of cytotoxic and targeted agents in lung cancer cell lines. J Chemotherapy 2009; 21: 338-346.

Postma C, Koopman M, Buffart TE, Eijk PP, Carvalho B, Peters GJ, Ylstra B, van Krieken JH, Punt CJ, Meijer GA(2009). DNA copy number profiles of primary tumors as predictors of response to chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol. 20; 1048-1056.

Crea F, Giovannetti E, Cortesi F, Mey V, Nannizzi S, Gallegos Ruiz MI, Ricciardi S, Del Tacca M, Peters GJ, Danesi R. Epigenetic mechanisms of irinotecan sensitivity in colorectal cancer cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther 2009; 8: 1964-1973. 

Van Riel JM, Peters GJ, Mammatas LH, Honeywell RJ, Laan AC, Ruyter R, Van den Berg F, Giaccone G, Van Groeningen CJ. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of gemcitabine given by 24-hour hepatic arterial infusion. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45: 2519-2526.

Adema AD, Bijnsdorp IV, Sandvold ML, Verheul HM, Peters GJ. Innovations and opportunities to improve conventional (deoxy)nucleoside and fluoropyrimidine analogs in cancer. Current Med Chem 2009; 16: 4632-4643.

Mayur YC, Zaheeruddin, Peters GJ, Lemos C, Kathmann I, Rajendra Prasad VVS. Synthesis of 2-fluoro N10-substituted acridones and their cytotoxicity studies in sensitive and resistant cancer cell lines and their DNA intercalation studies. Archiv Pharmazie 2009; 342: 640-650.


Giovannetti E, Ugrasena DG, Supriyadi E, Vroling L, Azzarello A, De Lange D, Peters GJ, Veerman AJP, Cloos J. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and thymidylate synthase promoter (TSER) polymorphisms in Indonesian children with and without leukemia. Leuk Res 2008; 32: 19-24.

Lemos C, Jansen G, Peters GJ. Drug transporters: recent advances concerning BCRP and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Br J Cancer 2008; 98: 857-862.

Tibaldi C, Giovannetti E, Vasile E, Mey V, Laan AC, Nannizzi S, Di Marsico R, Antonuzzo A, Orlandini C, Ricciardi S, Del Tacca M, Peters GJ, Falcone A, Danesi R. Correlation of cytidine deaminase, ercc1 and xpd polymorphisms with response and survival in gemcitabine/cisplatin-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14: 1797-803.

Giovannetti E , Lemos C, Tekle C , Smid K, Nannizi S, Rodriguez JA, Ricciardi S, Danesi R, Giaccone G, Peters GJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic interaction of erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with the multitargeted antifolate pemetrexed in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 2008; 73: 1290-300.

Noordhuis P, Laan AC, Van der Born K, Losekoot N, Kathmann I, Peters GJ. Oxaliplatin activity in selected and unselected human ovarian and colorectal cancer cell lines. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2008; 76: 63-71.

Staffhorst RWHM, Van der Born K, Erkelens CAM, Hamelers IHL, Peters GJ, Boven E, De Kroon AIPM. Antitumor activity and biodistribution of cisplatin nanocapsules in nude mice bearing ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Anticancer Drugs 2008;19: 721-727.

Lemos C, Kathmann I, Giovannetti E, Dekker H, Scheffer GL, Calhau C, Jansen G, Peters GJ (2008). Folate deprivation induces BCRP (ABCG2) expression and mitoxantrone resistance in Caco-2 cells. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 1712-1717.

Direcks WGE, Berndsen SC, Proost N, Peters GJ, Balzarini J, Spreeuwenberg, MD, Lammertsma AA, Molthoff CFM. [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT uptake in human breast cancer cells in relation to the effects of chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Br J Cancer 2008; 99: 481-487.

Tekle C, Giovannetti E, Sigmond J, Graff JR, Smid K, Peters GJ. Molecular pathways involved in the synergistic interaction of the PKCß inhibitor enzastaurin with the antifolate pemetrexed in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer 2008; 99: 750-759.

Mauritz R, Peters GJ, Kathmann I, Teshale H, Noordhuis P, Comijn EM, Pinedo HM, Jansen G. Dynamics of antifolate transport via the reduced folate carrier and the membrane folate receptor in murine leukaemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008; 62: 937-948. 

Bijnsdorp IV, Kruyt FAE, Gokoel S, Fukushima M, Peters GJ. Synergistic interaction of trifluorothymidine with docetaxel (Taxotere®) after sequential scheduling. Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 2302-2309.