Problem Areas In Diabetes Scale

Dutch version available

A 20-item measure of  diabetes-related distress for use in adults with diabetes. 
Available in multiple languages. Contact:  

A 5-item and 1-tems Short-Form of PAID have recently been developed and validated for quick screening.

Pediatric and Parent version of PAID are available. Contact: Jill Weissberg-Benchell at Lurie Childrens Hospital.


1. Snoek FJ et al. Diabetes-Related Emotional Distress in Dutch and U.S. Diabetic Patients, Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 1305-1309.

2. McGuire B et al. Short-form measures of diabetes-related emotional distress: the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID)-5 and PAID-1.